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来源:地球变形网   时间: 2018-06-01



  Waves are the children of the struggle between ocean and atmosphere, the ongoing signatures of infinity. Raysfrom the sun excite and energize the atmosphere of the earth, awakening it to flow, to movement, to rhythm, tolife. The wind then speaks the message of the sun to the sea and the sea transmits it on through waves �C and ancient, exquisite, powerful message.These ocean waves are among the earth’s most complicated natural phenomena. The basic features include a crest ( the highest point of the wave), a trough (the lowest point), a height (the vertical distance fromthe trough to the crest), a wave length (the horizontal distance between two wave crests), and a period(which is the time it takes a wave crest to travel one wave length).Although an ocean wave gives the impression of a wall of water moving in your direction, in actuality waves move through the water leaving the water about where it was. If the water was moving with the wave,the ocean and everything on it would be racing in to the shore with obviously catastrophic results. An ocean wave passing through deep water causes a particle on the surface to move in a roughly circular orbit, drawing the particle first towards the advancing wave, then up into the wave, then forward with it and then �C as the wave leaves the particles behind �C back to its starting point again.From both maturity to death, a wave is subject to the same laws as any other ‘living’ thing. For a time it assumes a miraculous individuality that, in the end, is reabsorbed into the great ocean of life. The undulating waves of the open sea are generated by three natural causes: wind, earth movements of tremors, and the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun. Once waves have bean generated, gravity is the force that drives them in a continual attempt to restore the ocean surface to a flat plain.

  New words and expressions 生词和短语


  n. 签名,标记


  n. 无穷


  n. 光线


  v. 给与...能量


  n. 节奏


  v. 传送


  adj. 高雅的


  n. 现象


  n. 浪峰


  n. 波谷


  adj. 垂直的


  adj. 水平的


  n. 现实


  adj. 大灾难的


  n. 微粒


  n. 成熟


  v. 波动,形成波浪


  n. 震颤


  adj. 地心吸力的


  海浪是大海和空气相斗的产物,无限的一种不间断的标志。太阳光刺激了地球的大气层,并给予它能量;阳光使空气开始流动,产生节奏,获得生命。然后,风把太阳的住处带给了大海,海洋用波浪的形式传递这个信息 -- 一个源过流长、高雅而有力的信息。


  穿过深水的海浪使水面上的一个微粒按照一种近乎圆形的轨道移动,先把微粒拉向前移动的海浪,然后推上波浪,随着波浪移动,然后 -- 当波浪把微粒留在身后时 -- 又回到出发点。



Lesson 41

Training elephants


First listen and then answer the following question.


At what point does the training of a captive wild elephant begin?

Two main techniques have been used for training elephants, which we may respectively the tough and the gentle. The former method simply consists of setting an elephant to work and beating him until he does what is expected of him. Apart from moral considerations this is a stupid method of training, for it produces a resentful animal who at a later stage may well turn man-killer. The gentle method requires more patience in the early stages, but produces a cheerful, good-tempered elephant who will give many years of loyal service.

The first essential in elephant training is to assign to the animal a single mahout who will be entirely responsible for the job. Elephants like to have one master just as dogs do, and are capable of a considerable degree of personal affection. There are even stories of half-trained elephant calves who have refused to feed and pined to death when by some unavoidable circumstance they have been deprived of their own trainer. Such extreme cases must probably be taken with a grain of salt, but they do underline the general principle that the relationship between elephant and mahout is the key to successful training.

The most economical age to capture an elephant for training is between fifteen and twenty years, for it is then almost ready to undertake heavy work and can begin to earn its keep straight away. But animals of this age do not easily become subservient to man, and a very time man, and a very firm hand must be employed in the early stages. The captive elephant, still roped to a tree, plunges and screams every time a man approaches, and for several days will probably refuse all food through anger and fear. Sometimes a tame elephant is tethered nearby to give the wild one confidence, and in most cases the captive gradually quietens down and begins to accept its food. The next stage is to get the elephant to the training establishment, a ticklish business which is achieved with the aid of two tame elephants roped to the captive on either side.

When several elephants are being trained at one time, it is customary for the new arrival to be placed between the stalls of two captives whose training is already well advanced. It is then left completely undisturbed with plenty of food and water so that it can absorb the atmosphere of its new home and see that nothing particularly alarming is happening to its companions. When it is eating normally, its own training begins. The trainer stands in front of the elephant holding a long stick with a sharp metal point. Two assistants治疗癫痫医院哪家好, mounted on tame elephants, control the captive from either side, while others rub their hands over his skin to the accompaniment of a monotonous and soothing chant. This is supposed to induce pleasurable sensations in the elephant, and its effects are reinforced by the use of endearing epithets. The elephant is not son', or 'ho! my father', or 'my mother', according to the age and sex of the captive. The elephant is not immediately susceptible to such blandishments, however, and usually lashes fiercely with its trunk in all directions. These movements are controlled by the trainer with the metal-pointed stick, and the trunk eventually becomes so sore that the elephant curls it up and seldom afterwards uses it for offensive purposes.


New words and expressions 生词和短语


n. 技术


adj. 强硬的


adj. 忿恨不满的


v. 分配,指派


n. 驯象人


n. 幼仔


v. 消瘦


v. 着重说明,强调


n. 生计


adj. 屈从的


v. 向前冲


adj. 养驯服了的


v. (用绳)拴


adj. 难对付的,棘手的


adj. 引起惊恐的


n. 伴奏


v. 镇定


n. 单调的歌


v. 加强




n. 称呼


adj. 易受感动的


n. 奉承


v. 猛烈地甩


v. 使卷曲




捕捉15至20岁之间年龄的大象进行驯象最为经济。 这个年龄的象差不多已能干重活,可以很快挣回饲养它的开支。但这个年龄的象不易驯服,因此开始阶段需要有一位强有力的老手。捕来拴在树上的大象,每当有人走近它时,就会向前猛冲并发出尖叫,甚至一连几于都由于愤怒和恐惧而拒绝进食。有时,把一头已驯服的象拴在旁边能给野象以信心。在大多数情况下,刚博来的象会慢慢静下来,接着开始吃深圳市人民医院癫痫科怎么样食。下一步就是把象带到训练场所,这是一件棘手的事,需要在它两侧拴上两头驯服的大象才能完成。


42.Recording an earthquake


First listen and then answer the following question.


What does a pen have to do to record on paper the vibrations generated by an earthquake?

An earthquake comes like a thief in the night, without warning. It was necessary, therefore, to invent instruments that neither slumbered nor slept. Some devices were quite simple. One, for instance, consisted of rods of various lengths and thicknesses with would stand up end like ninepins. When a shock came, it shook the rigid table upon which these stood. If it were gentle, only the more unstable rods fell. If it were severe, they all fell. Thus the rods, by falling, and by the direction in which they fell, recorded for the severe, they all fell. Thus the rods, by falling, and by the direction in which they fell, recorded for the slumbering scientist the strength of a shock that was too weak to waken him, and the direction from which it came.

But instruments far more deliecate than that were needed if any really serious advance was to be made. The ideal to be aimed at was to devise an instrument that could record with a pen on paper, the movements of the ground or of the table as the quake passed by. While I write my pen moves, but the paper keeps still. With practice, no doubt, I could in time learn to write by holding the pen still while the paper moved. That sounds a silly suggestion, but that was precisely the idea adopted in some of the early instruments (seismometers) for recording earthquake waves. But when table, penholder and paper are all moving, how is it possible to write legibly? The key to a solution of that problem lay in an everyday observation. Why does a person standing in a bus or train tend to fall when a sudden start is made? It is because his feet move on , but his head stays still. A simple experiment will help us a little further. Tie a heavy weight at the end of a long piece of string. With the hand to and fro and around but not up and string so that the weight nearly touches the ground. Now move the hand to and fro and around but not up and down. It will be found that the weight a piece of string. With the hand held high in the air, hold the string so that the weight nearly touches the ground. Now move the hand to and fro and around but not up and down. It will be found that ten weight moves but slightly or not at all. Imagine an earthquake shock shaking the floor, the paper, you and your hand. In the midst of all this movement, the weight and the pen would be still. But as the paper moved from side to side under the pen point, its movement would be recorded in ink upon its surface. It was upon this principle that the first instruments were made, but while the drum was being shaken, the line that the pen was drawing wriggled from side to side. The apparatus thus described, however, records only the horizontal component of the wave movement, which is, in fact, much more complicated. If we could actually see the path described b癫痫病医院哪里比较好y a particle, such as a sand grain in the rock, it would be more like that of a bluebottle path described by a particle, such as a sand grain in the rock, it would be more like that of a bluebottle buzzing round the room; it would be up and down, to and fro and from side to side. Instruments have been devised and can be so placed that all three elements can be recorded in different graphs.

When the instrument is situated at more than 700 miles from the earthquake centre, the graphic record shows three waves arriving one after at short intervals. The first records the arrival of longitudinal vibrations. The second marks the arrival of transverse vibrations which travel more slowly and arrive several minutes after the first. These two have travelled through the earth. It was from the study of these that so much was learnt about the interior of the earth. The third, or main. The third, or main wave, is the slowest and has travelled round the earth through the surface rocks.

H.H,SWINNERTON The Earth beneath Us

New words and expressions 生词和短语


n. 地震


v. 睡眠


n. 九柱戏中的木柱


adj. 坚硬的


adj. 灵感的


n. 地震仪


n. 笔杆


adv. 字迹清楚地


n. 鼓状物


v. 扭动


n. 绿头苍蝇


n. 图表


adj. 图示的


adj. 纵向的


adj. 横向的






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